Friday, September 14, 2012

परिचय बलिया

Ballia (Bhojpuri: बलिया, Hindi: बलिया) is a city with a municipal board in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The eastern boundary of the city lies at the junction of the Ganges and the Ghaghara. The city is situated from 141 km from Varanasi. Bhojpuri, a dialect of Hindi, is the primary local language.

Ballia is also known as Baghi Ballia (Rebel Ballia) for its significant contribution in India's freedom struggle. During the first Independence War of India in 1857, Ballia came in picture in front of the world and Shree Mangal Pandey was that first freedom fighter of that war who was born in village Nagwa Ballia district of India.[1] During the Quit India Movement of 1942 Ballia gained independence from British rule for a short period of time when the district overthrew the government and installed an independent administration under Chittu Pandey.


Ballia is an ancient city. Many great saints and sages of India had their ashrams in Ballia, including Valmiki, Bhrigu, Durvasa, Parashara muni and Jamadagni. Ballia was a part of the Kosala Kingdom in ancient times. It also came under the Buddhist influence for some time. Earlier the district was a part of Ghazipur district, but later it was created as an independent District.

Sahatwar, Sheikhpur and Sikanderpur are also very old towns of Ballia, populated during the reign of Feroze Shah Tughlaq where famous Muslim saints came and inhabited the area and served Muslims and non-Muslim alike

Origin of the name Ballia

The origin of the name Ballia, has long been a matter of dispute. It is locally said to have been derived from the name of the sage Valmiki, the celebrated Hindu poet and the author of Ramayana, whose having resided here was commemorated by a shrine, which has long been washed away. Another belief about the origin of the name is that it has been derived from the sandy nature of the land of the place, locally known as "Ballua" (balu meaning sand). It was initially named as 'balian', later transformed to Ballia


Ballia is a station on the Broad Gage Indian Railways[6] with about 35 trains daily (including 2 Rajdhani express)[7] Major railway stations include Belthara Road, Surimanpur, Phephna, and Rasra. Belthara Road is connected with Gorakhpur by many trains like Dadar Express, Chauri Chaura Express, Gorakhnath Express etc. Road connectivty from Varanasi-to-Ballia, Gorakhpur-to-Ballia and Ballia-to-Patna is very good. It takes about 4 hours by road and 2–3 hours by train from Varanasi-to-Ballia. The road passes through Ghazipur district then small towns like Nagra, Sikanderpur then Ballia.

Dadri Mela (fair)

Dadri Mela is the second largest cattle fair of India which is located at 5 KM from Ballia town nearby NH 19 and 3 KM from Bus station of Ballia city.[3][4] The fair starts on full moon of Kartik Poornima (October–November) with Holy dip in Ganges. This fair is held annually in the honour of Dadar Muni, the disciple of Maharishi Bhrigu.

This fair is celebrated for more than one month and is organized in two phases. The first phase starts before 10 days of Kartik Poornima in which traders bring some excellent hybrids of cattle from across India for sale/purchase. On or after Kartik Poornima, various cultural programs are organized and one can find shops of different items at one stop during the next Fortnight.

Notable places

Notable temples:

    Maharshi Bhrigu Mandir in the heart of the city
    Jangli baba temple - 16 km from Ballia in Garwar.
    Shri Baleshwer Mandir
    Habib Manzil
    Chain Ram Baba mandir is in Sahatwar
    Nath Baba temple at Rasara
    Shokharan Nath mandeer In Ashega, Beruarbari.
    Panchmandir at village Sahatwar.
    Sri Sahajanand Baba Dev Sthan at village Chandpur at the bank of holy river Saryu (25 KM North-East from Ballia City)
    Narhari Das Kuti (Temple) - Guru of famous Poet Tulsi Das in Sitabdiyara
    Shri Jangli Baba Mandir (Temple) place at Garwar (Fair of Dhanteras before one day Diwali)
    Hanuman Mandir, 4 KM from Ballia city.
    Parashurama Temple in Maniyar (Only few temples of Parashurama)
    Kameshwar Nath Dham (Shiv Mandir), Karon, Ballia (U.P.)
    Mata Kapilashweri Bhwani Mandir (Temple), Near Sager Pali, Ballia (UP)
    Shahid Smarak, Sukhpura is dedicated to our freedom fighters and situated beside the Sukhpura Inter College's entrance.
    Bramani mata temple is situated about 6k.m. from Ballia
    KEVAL BABA temple is located in Hanshnagar
  • Lakhnesar, first republic of the Sengars having no kings to rule over.
  • swami Maharaj Baba Temple in Milki Village Near RaniGanj Bazar Bairia Ballia.
  • Jalpa mata Temple in Sikanderpur, Ballia.

    Area villages

  • A village named Dharnipur is located 9 KM from Ballia.
  • Aamghat Village is 7.7 km far from its District Main City Ballia.
  • A village Aundi (via Piyaria)is 20 km (west) from Ballia city / 10 km from Phepana Junction.- located on Ballia-Mau road.
  • A village called Majhuan (24 km far from Ballia city) . It is situated on the bank of the Ganges river.
  • Shivpur Diar Nai Basti (Bayashi) village which is having 20 thousand population with 90% literacy and 7 km far from Ballia.
  • A village named Akhar famous for its wrestlers located 6 km East from Ballia town.
  • A village named Dubhar village which is having 30 thousand population with 40% literacy and 9 km far from Ballia.famous for its literacy .
  • A village named Khejuri is located 15 KM from Ballia.
  • A village named Shahpur near Garwar police station is located 19 KM from Ballia.
  • Bansdih located 18 KM far from Ballia. It is having population more than 50,000.
  • Tengarhin village is located at Bairia - Ballia Road on Distance 36 KM from Ballia .
  • Hanshnagar is small village that is located 17 k.m. far from Ballia and 3 k.m. far from Haldi.

Notable personalities of Ballia

 Swaraj singh
    Mangal Pandey
    Chittu Pandey
    Hazari Prasad Dwivedi
    Jayaprakash Narayan
    Narad Rai-present M.L.A of ballia sadar
    Chandra Shekhar Singh - 9TH Prime Minister of India
    Murli Manohar - Politician
    Dr.Ganesh Prasad  - Mathematician
    Kedarnath Singh - Hindi poet
    Dr. Sandeep Pandey - Ramon-Magsasy Award Winner, Social Activist and Founder of "Asha for Education"
    Janeshwar Mishra(Chhote Lohiya) - Politician
    Dr. Janardan Chaturvedi - Translated Shrimad Bhagvat Geeta into Bhojpuri (regional language of eastern U.P. and Bihar) called "Janardan Geeta".
    Anand Swroop Verma - A Senior Journalist
    Netaji Santosh Pratap Singh- Kshatriya Sena
    Pt. Murlidhar shukla- founded first Hindi school in West Bengal with shyama Prasad Mukherjee
    Anant Kumar Pushpak-Senior Civil Engineer in KEC International Limited
    Mr. Bachha Pathak EX-Minister (govt of up)
    Mr.Pradeep Pathak (All India Rank 3 in gate )
    [Shri Bharat Singh " Akela"] A Senior Journalist, Teacher, Samajwadi Leader and Founder "(Rashtravadi Loktantrik Janta Party)"
    [Gajendra Pratap singh ] Social Activist and Founder of "(Samarpan India Janseva Foundation)"


 Major Educational Institutions:

    Holy Cross School, Amritpali, Ballia(U.P)
    St. Xavier's School - Dharahara, Ballia (U.P.)
    Sacred Heart School, Saharaspali, Ballia (U.P.)
    Town Polytechnic, Tikhampur Road, Ballia (U.P)
    Naga ji Saraswati Vidya Mandir Maldepur, Ballia (UP)
    Shri Jangli Baba Inter College (JBIC), Garwar, Ballia (UP)
    Gandhi Inter College Chilkahar, Ballia (UP)
    Bansi Bazar Inter College (BBIC), Navanagar, Ballia (UP)
    Pachrukha Devi Inter College (PDIC), Gaighat (Reoti), Ballia (U.P.)
    Modern Convent School, Gaighat (Reoti), Ballia (U.P.). This is 22 years old school and established in 1989.
    Oracle Institute of Management & Information Technology, Sankat Mochan Colony, Civil Lines, Ballia (U.P.)[14]
    Kunwar Singh Degree College, Ballia (U.P.)
    Kendriya Vidyalaya ballia
    Satish Chandra Degree College, Ballia (U.P.)
    Murli Manohar Town Degree College, Ballia (U.P.)
    Gandhi Degree College in Mirdha village, Ballia (U.P.)[15]
    Kendriya Vidyalaya, Ballia (U.P.)[16]
    Gyan Peethika Sr. Sec. School, Zeerabasti, Ballia (U.P.)
    MG Inter College, Dalan Chhapra, Ballia (U.P.)
    Sukhpura Inter College, Sukhpura, Ballia (U.P)
    Sri Haribansa Baba Inter College, Pur, Ballia (U.P.)
    Ratsar Inter College, Ratasar, Ballia (U.P.)
    Sri Ram Baba Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya, Akwari-Bisukia, Ballia (U.P.)
    Sri Swaminath Singh Surendara Mahavidyalya Mahathapar, Ballia (U.P.)
    Reoti Inter College Reoti, Ballia (U.P.)
    Amar Shahid Bhagat Singh Inter College Rasra, Ballia (U.P.). Formerly Known as King Gorge Silver Jubly Inter College Rasra, Ballia (U.P.).
    St Marys School.Abhanpur Rasra Ballia
    PMHS parasia bisouli Ballia U.P.
    CB Inter college sahatwar ballia U.p.


  1. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

  2. I want to know about Satti Mata temple where is ? because I hear to rather famus name's sati mata temple.I continue try to search that location in " http:\\ " website.but no be plz help me..

    1. sati mata tempal is bansdih road. when u will go to bansdih you can ask from anybody about of sati mata tempal. any body u can tell.. Thank U manoj Gupta

  3. Mr. manoj the new sati mata mandir is at bansdih road railway station. and the old sati mata mandir is in gazipur dist. u will find that at rasra gazipur road. start ur journey from rasra. i suggest bansdih road will be well.

  4. veer ro ki dharti jvano ka desh bagi ballia uttar pradesh...

  5. I think admin forget to mention about Jagadish sukla in famous persons..... U can enquire about him through the link-

    1. Yaa u are right saying Mr. Deepak Yadav

  6. Hello Mr. Deepak.

    I will keep in mind Your suggestion and will update it. By theway Jagdish Shukla and Mahendra Shukla Both are the Famous person of our Local Aria.

    Jai Bhrigu Baba

  7. Mr.Himanshu Singh.....Thanks for suggestion :D


  9. The Satti Mata temple situated at Bansdeeh in Ballia.its 12km far from Ballia.
    If you want to go there you can catch any passenger train, who goes to chhapra side.

  10. three cabinet up minister mr narad rai , ram govind choudhary and mr ambika choudhary
    mr bhart singh is m p , b j p

  11. all knowledgble information well done Bravo!!!


  13. Pls, note the munishwara nand(khapadiya baba) temple, sripalpur, lalganj (dwaba) ballia, a very very famous temple and holy place for us.

  14. My father north place kewra ,bansdih ballia I am loving my "Mantra Bhumi" and I proud to be my dist

  15. My father north place kewra ,bansdih ballia I am loving my "Mantra Bhumi" and I proud to be my dist

  16. This comment has been removed by the author.

  17. My father north place kewra ,bansdih ballia I am loving my "Mantra Bhumi" and I proud to be my dist

  18. My self Ajit Kumar Dubey, Please note that One Temple ( MAA BHAGAWTI JI TEMPLE),located in Chand pur village , Bairia,(dwaba) Ballia, UP.a very very famous temple and & Maa changing har face three time a day,visit this temple.

  19. me also live in lalganj ballia my mob 9125668769

  20. Please add Sudistpuri in temples,its near raniganj bazar and nearest railway station is Suraimanpur.

  21. Please add Sudistpuri in temples,its near raniganj bazar and nearest railway station is Suraimanpur.

  22. shakti dhaam durga mandir lalgang bazzar ballia 9125668769

  23. Hello All,

    If you like my blog, Please follow it. So that you can get the notifications.

  24. Shri chhiteshwar nath mandir chhitoni chhata ballia is situted 15 km. from ballia

  25. Mr Sanjeev Yadav DCP Delhi Police Son of Ex Mayor of Ballia Nandji Yadav.
    Dr J N Singh author of many books in Mining Engineering and Director in first Nationalised Board of Directors of Coal India was from Nagra. His son in law Col Sanjay Singh in Core of Enfgineers of Indian Army is also from Ballia
    Mr Ajit Shukla (Sr. Vice President) in HCL Infosystem Ltd is from Asagi. Nr Bansdih.
    Anand Shukla Project Manager in GIZ ( German International Cooperation Agency) is also from Ballia he Son of Ex Lecturer of TD College.
    Dr. A S Upadhyay Executive Director Export Inspection Agency- Mumbai, Export Inspection Council (Min. of Com. & Ind., Govt. Of India) is from Charajpura, Baria
    Himanshu Upadhyay Assistant Vice President (Corporate & Commercial) at ERGO Insurance Pte. Ltd. is from Charajpura, Baria
    Col. Devendra Pandey from Core of Engineers is from Rampur kalan, Kharawni

    There are many People working in top MNC and many big government institutions.

  26. This comment has been removed by the author.

  27. This comment has been removed by the author.

  28. myself ritesh kunwar from vill- singahi want to tell you about HOLY temple in my village as PAWHARI BABA which is considered as great shrine of his . spu must visit

  29. For those who know less about history of Ballia.

    Medieval History of Ballia -
    The second battle of Tarain in 1192 A.D. dies not appear to have brought the region comprising the present district of Ballia under the immediate sovereignty of the Muslims. With the defeat and death of Jaichandra in the battle of Chandawar in 11.93, at the hands of Shihab-ud-din Ghuri, almost all of northern India lay at his feet but the effect of his conquest in the early years of his reign over this region appears to have been insignificant. This is evidenced by the comparative absence of Muslim remains in the district and also by the manner in which the Rajputs were left in apparently undisturbed possession. The Muslim forces seldom appeared beyond the Saryu river and the tract on the east of that river remained practically in the hands of the Rajputs. the earliest being the Sengars. Dikhits, Kinwars. Nikumbhas. Naraunis, Barwars, Karchokias and Lohatameas, all are of the same period. Later they were driven eastwards, apparently owing to the Muslim pressure on the west. That the tract remained unconquered may by ascribed to its geographical position and remoteness. Muslim names of places are rare in this district and references to it in the histories of Muslim historians less common. The was probably the result of the absence of Muslim proprietors at that time, those that remained being in most cases the dependents of local qazis and kanungos whose offices were hereditary during Muslim rule and who resided in the towns.According to tradition, pargana Sikandarpur was colonized by Muslims. It is believed that Qutib-ud-din Aibak, Muhammad capture of Varanasi on his way to Bihar and that he erected a fort on the place now known as Qutbganj on the banks of the Ghaghra.The village of Kathaura or Kathanda, in pargana Sikandarpur east of the Bansdih tahsil, was divided into two parts, one being called Kathaura and the other Qutbganj. A mound is still visible there of which it is believed that it constitutes the ruins of a fort built in the time of Qutb-ud-din Shah. The name of this sultan is preserved in that of the hamlet of Qutbganj which stands on the banks of the Ghaghra a short distance north of the main site.Meanwhile Ikhtiyar-ud-din Muhammad, son of Bakhtyar of the Turkish tribe of Khalj, had received some fiefs between the Ganga and the son, then took Tirhut and invaded Bihar capturing its capital. In his march he must have penetrated the district of Ballia and is certain that it was included in the territory of Bengal and Bihar in 1202 and hat the town of Kathaura (on the banks of the Ghaghra) had been in communication with he Muslim principalities of Bengal. Thus the district of Ballia passed under the sway of the Muslim.

  30. The tract occupied by the present district of Ballia finds no mention in the history of mediaeval India written by Muslim historians probably because the surrounding areas of Ghazipur. Jaunpur and Saran (in Bihar) remained in the possession of Hindu proprietors till the beginning of the reign of Muhammad Taughlak (1325). At certain periods the district was actually subjected to the Muslim rulers of Bengal. In 1377. when Firoz Shah returned from eastern Bengal, he placed Jaunpur under Malik Bahroz Sultana and Bihar under Malik Bir Afghan, who reduced the Hindus to complete subjection. The district of Ballia was also placed in the charge of these two persons till the death of Firuz Shah after which they increased their own power at the expense of the central authority till 1394, when Khwaja-i-jahan, the vizier of the kingdom, was deputed to the charge of Jaunpur with full control over the territory extending from Kannauj to Bihar, including the district of Ballia. He made Jaunpur an independent Muslim kingdom and it remained as such from 1394 to 1479 during which time at least a part of the tract included in the present district of Ballia came within its sway which, according to an inscription on a black marble slab fixed in wall of a tomb at Kharid, extended eastwards as far as Bihar. The tract covering the present district of Ballia appears to have remained under the undisputed control of the Jaunpur kingdom till 1479 when Buhlul Lodi defeated Sultan Husain, its last ruler, and obliged him to flee to Bihar.According to a legend, Kharid (a small village in pargana Sikandarpur) was given its name by the king of Bengal (Abu Muzaffar Sultan Husain). It was he who ruled over Bengal in 1495. An inscription on a stone slab found near Kharid mentions the king's name and the name of Kharid was under the Muslim ruler of Bengal.Sikandarpur, in the pargana of the same name in tahsil Bansdih, was founded by Sikandar Lodi and named after him, towards the end of the 15th century, though it is also said that it was founded by one of his officers. He is also said to have erected a fortress at this place. From the time of Qutb-ud-din Aibak (or about the beginning of the 13th century) Muslim immigrants began to arrive in the district, probably from the Muslim principalities of lower Bengal and gradually established their ascendancy throughout the northern part of pargana Sikandarpur having ousted the Hindu proprietors of the place.After the defeat of Husain Shah, Buhlul pursued him as far as the confines of Bihar. When Bauhlu reached the town of Haldi (in this district) he heard the news of the death of Qutb Khan Lodi, his cousin. After observing the days of customary mourning, he returned to Haunpur which he left in the possession of Barbak. After Buhlul's death, Barbak became an independent king and a potential danger to his brother, Sikandar, Lodi, who succeeded Buhlul in 1488 as the sultan of Delhi. In 1493 the district of Ballia was affected by an extensive Hindu rebellion in the wake of which Barbak was driven out of Jaunpur but was reinstate when Sikandar Lodi returned. Sikandarpur was garrisoned but whatever importance it attained during the days of the Lodis appears to have waned under the Mughals, when no imperial were maintained or deemed to be necessary in these parts.

  31. When Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi at Paniput in 1526 and became the ruler of Delhi, the Afghan nobles of the east strengthen their power within a short time. From an inscription on a black marble slab found near the Ghaghra and later fixed in the wall of the tomb of Rukn-ud-dib at Kharid, it appears that a mosque was built at Kharid in 1527 during the days of Nusrat Shah, an independent king of Bengal. This inscription, which is in Tughra characters, confirms that Nusrat Shah had extended his authority over the whole of northern Bihar and as Karid lies on the right bank on the Ghaghra, Nusrat Shah must have held sway temporarily in Azamgarh in which part of the present district of Ballia lay. The name of the sovereign of Vengal would not have occurred had Muhammad Shah exercised real authority over this region and at this time Kharid seems to have been in the possession of the sultan of Bengal According to tradition, the town of Kharid was then known as Ghazanfarabad, a magnificent city extending for a considerable distance between Sikandarpur and Turtipar.In 1528 Babur marched eastwards knowing that Nusrat Shah had encroached on Bihar. The Afghans under Mahmud (Sikandar Lodi's son) reached the north bank of the Ghaghra while Babur reached Ghazipur by the Ganga and then went on to Chaunsa, touching the border of the district as well. He sent his artillery into Doaba to contain the enemy by bombardment and dispatched Mirza Askari through Ballia with instruction to cross the Ghaghra at Haldi and to threaten the Afghans on their right flank, he himself crossing over just below the confluence. Nusrat Shah. who had joined Mahmud, separated from his forces and withdrew the army of Kharid, as it was called. Babur attacked and defeated the Afghans, driving them across the Ghaghra in the direction of Luck-now and, keeping to the north bank of the Ghaghra, he went on pursuing them. After Babur's death the Afghans set up Jalal-ud-din Lahani, Mahmud's son, as their sovereign and all the defeated Afghans allied themselves with him, chief among them being Farid Khan Suri, better known as Sher Khan and afterwards as Sher Shah. The district continued to remain under to control of Delhi during the reigns of Sher Shah and of his successor, Islam Shah. When Akbar came to the throne (in 1556) the east, in which was included the district of Ballia, was conquered in 1559.About 1565, Ballia was affected by the rebellion of Khan Zaman against Akbar. The records of Akbor's reign in the Ain-i-Akbari furnish a certain amount of information regarding the condition of Ballia in respect of cultivation, the revenue and the principal landholders of each pargana. The district lay party in the sirkar of Ghazipur and the remainder, with the exception of Doaba, in the sirkar of Jaunpur, Both these sirkars were included in the subah of Allahabad, Doaba was not a separate pargana but formed a portion of sirkar Rohtas in the Subah of Bihar.

  32. It is not possible to determine the revenue then paid in Doaba. The district paid a revenue of Rs.1,55,000 on a cultivated area of 80,200 acres. The revenue demand was extremely high. At a conservative estimate, the purchasing power of the rupee in Akbar's days was probably at least eight times as great as what obtained of the 20th century.The name of the parganas (with the exception of Doaba) remained unchanged. There were three mahals (revenue paying units) of the present district of Ballia in the sirkar of Jaunpur, namely Kharid. Sikandarpur and Bhadaon. Kharid, a prosperous pargana, was then held by Kausik Rajputs, It had a cultivated area of 30,914 bighas and paid a revenue of 14,45,743 dams (absolute Indian copper coin, one fortieth of a rupee) and contributed a contigent of 50 horsemen and 5,000 foot.Sikandarpur, a pargana which lay in the sirkar of Jaunpur, was somewhat larger than at present, as four tappas (tracts of land) were afterwards transferred to Azamgarh, though, the loss was compensated for to some extent by the addition of tappa. Dhaka from Zahurabad and Shah Salempur from Kopachit. The leading zamindars were Brahmansa, as the Baid had not yet asserted their supremacy, the date of their advent being 1628. The military contingent was 10 mounted men and 3,000 infantry and the revenue 17,06,417 dams on about 32,514 bighas of cultivation.The mahal of Bhadaon had 43,000 bighas under cultivation the revenue being 2,29,315 dams and the zamindars Siddiqi Sheikhs, who provided 10 horse and 100 foot.There were four mahals in the Ghazipur sirkar, namely Ballia, Kopachit, Lakhnesar and Garha. In all these parganas, except Garha, t he zamindara were Rajpurs. Garha was the property of Brahmanas or of Rajputs. Ballia had about 28,344 bighas under tillage, paid a revenue of 12,50,000 dams and contributed 200 cavalry and 2,000 foot. In Kopachit there were about 19,266 bighas under cultivation and the revenue was 9,42,190 dams, the local contingent being 20 horse and 2,000 foot. The Akbari gives the details about pargana Lakhnesar which had approximately 2,883 bighas under cultivation, the revenue being 1,26,636 dams. Garha, which furnished 200 foot, had 10,049 bighas under cultivation and paid a revenue of 5,00,000 dams.

  33. Modern History of Ballia -

    The administrative divisions of Akbar's days remained practically unchanged for 15 years or so after Aurangzeb's in 1707. Soon after this the grip of the central and provincial governments in this part of the empire gradually leading to the local Rajput zamindars becoming practically independent. Taking advantage of the chaos, Kunwar Dhir Singh, turbulent Rajput chief of Shahabad (in the State of Bihar) set out with a small force and took possession of a large tract along the banks of the Ghaghra and extended his conquests as far west as Sagri (in Azamgarh). His activities soon attracted the attention of Sarbuland Khan, the governor of Allahabad, who in 1715, aided by he raja of Azamgarh, drove Dhir Singh out almost to Padrauna (in district Deoria where he was killed). When Muhammad Shah became emperor in 1719, he gave Muriaza Khan (one of his courtiers) the bulk if the tract covering the present district of Ballia in jagir together with the rest of the sirkars of Jaunpur and Ghazipur as well as those of Varanasi (Banaras) and Chunar. Murtaza Khan entrusted the management of the these territories to Rustam Ali Khan (a relative) for consideration of five lakhs of rupees annually, the latter having the right to retain the surplus for himself. As he could not realize the revenue from most of the zamindars, about 1728 Murtaza Khan leased the jagir to Saadat Khan (the nawab of Avadh) for an annual sum of seven lakhs of rupees, who allowed Rustam Ali Khan to continue to manage the estate for eight lakhs of rupees annually. From that time Ballia ceased to be subject directly to the imperial administration and its virtual ruler became the nawab of Avadh. Rustam Ali Khan experienced considerable difficulty in reducing the turbulent Rajputs of the Ballia region to order and in realizing revenue from them. He, therefore, set up a large entrenched camp on the banks of the Saryu in pargana Kopachit East, close to the village of Dumre from where he marched against the Rajput chieftains of Sukhpura in pargana Kharid, who were killed in a pitched battle in village Garwar (in tahsil Ballia). From their skulls, Rustam Ali khan constructed a pyramid which, it is said, now forms an elevated mound in Garwar. He continued in charge till 1738, when he was replaced by Mansa Ram, one of his deputies, a Gautam Bhuinhar zamindar of Gangapur in Varanasi. Mansa Ram secured for himself but in the name of his son, Balwant Singh, the office of nazim of the sirkars of Jaunpur, Varanasi and Chunar. Mansa Ram died within a year and was succeeded by his son Balwant Singh who made over the remaining sirkar of Ghazipur to Sheikh Abdullah (a zamindar of Ghazipur who earned the favour of Saadat Khan, the nawab of Avadh) on an annual rent of three lacks of rupees. Sheikh Abdullah died in 1744 leaving four sons, of whom the eldest, Fazl Ali, and youngest, Karam Ullah, had a tussle over the sirkar of Ghazipur and sometimes the former gained charge of it and sometimes the latter. The tussle continued till the death of Karam Ullah in 1748. The sirkar of Ghazipur remained under the charge of Fazl Ali until his expulsion in 1757 for oppression and misconduct and the sirkar of Ghazipur was re-annexed to the other three sirkars and placed under Balwant Singh's management. From this time Ballia formed part of the territories held by Balwant Singh (who became raja of Varanasi) as a feudatory of Shuja-uddaula, the nawab vizier of Avadh.

  34. On January 26,1775, Shuja-ud-daula died and was succeeded by his son, Asaf-ud-daula, who was transferred to the East India Company the sovereignty of the district (including Ballia) dependent on Chait Singh under the treaty Signed at Lucknow on May 21,1775. The administrative powers of Chait Singh remained more or less unchanged. In the beginning warren hastings (the governor-general) took keen interest in the affairs of Chait Singh but subsequently strained relations arose between them Hastings asked Chait Singh to pay five lakhs of rupees as an extraordinary subsidy to meet the expenses of the East India Company's army. Chait Singh paid the sum, though with great reluctance, when the demand was repeated and he tried to avoid paying it, Hastings realized the money with the help of the army. Chait Singh now tried to exterminate the power of the British who, when they came to know of this, called in the army from Patna to chastise Chait Singh. He was ultimately deposed in 1781 and was succeeded by Balwant Singh's young grandson, Mahip Narain Singh, a nonentity, the police and judicial administration for all practical purposes passing into the hands of the East India Company though the revenue was still nominally under his supervision. The old system of amils continued to be maintained in its entreaty and the amils were allowed to exact from the cultivators whatever they could collect or extort. Hastings failed to set the affairs of Ballia on a firm basis. He gave jagirs in Ballia to his favorites and to subordinate officials. Thus his private secretary, Kishan Kanth Nandi (popularly known as Kantu Babu) was granted an estate in 1785 comprising the talukas of Hathaunj and Mundiari in pargana Kharid and of Duha Behra in pargana Sikandarpur. Another rent-free estate, known as the Sonwani jagir which comprised 14 villages in pargana Ballia, was conferred by Hastings on his munshi, Shariat Ullah Khan. The maladministration was aggravated by the conduct of the earlier Residents who were political agents appointed by the East India Company for governing their jurisdictions, particularly the notorious Francis Fowke, who imposed several new and illegal cusses for his own benefit. Such was the state of this region when Jonathan Duncan was appointed Resident at Varanasi by (Lord) Cornwallis in July, 1787. In spite of the reformation introduced by Duncan with regard to the settlement of the land revenue and in many other directions, he soon realized that the raja was unfit for the administration of the area. Therefore, in 1794 an agreement was made separating the territories immediately under the British from the raja's family domains. This step was adopted owing to the disorganized state of the region. Continued famines had caused great distress and thrown wide areas out of cultivation and lawlessness was rife in every direction. Of this Ballia afforded several striking examples. In 1789 about 200 Dusadhs from Ballia had attacked and looted the town of Gaya (in Bihar). These Dusadhs were protected by the zamindars because they received a yearly tribute from them for providing them with a refuge in their villages.

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  37. Occasionally the zamindars themselves followed in the water of these looters and during Duncan's time some traveling merchants were murdered at Maniar (in tahsil Bansdih) and their money divided among the village owners. About this time Jagannath Sing ,the chief of the Bais of Sikandarpur (in tahsil) was wandering about the country with a band of armed followers and levying exactions on the villagers. He had been deprived of his estate by the raja of varanasi . Jagnnath Sing was arrested under Ducan's orders and sent to varanasi but was released at the instance of the Sengars of Lakhnesar (in tahsil Rasra ).the Sengars were considered to be the most independent and turbulent of all the subjects of the East India Company and in 1793 they attacked Duncan's bodyguard when he visited pargana Lakhnesar but Duncan condoned the offence. Duncan endeavored to induce Jagnnath Singh to adopt a peaceful way of living and the eventually demanded the restoration of the entire Sikandarpur pargana. this proved too much for the Sengars who arrested him to Varanasi . there he was again released, this time on the security of the Kausiks (a Rajput clan) of Cithara gagon (in tahsil Ballia); but he became hostile. defied the authority of the British and committed robberies, arson and murder in every direction. Troops were, therefore, sent against him on several occasions but on their approach he invariably retired across the Ghaghra so that in 1795 it became necessary to keep a military force permanently stationed in Ballia . A reward of Rs. 10,000 was offered for his arrest but it was not till 1800 that he was surprised by a party of cavalry when hiding in a jungle some distance from his fort . he was then sentenced to a long term of imprisonment and obtained his release only in 1816 . he was given a pension of Rs. 60 per month and in 1822 (Lord ) Amherst generously restored to him the taluka of parsia . In 1818 the present pargana of Doaba, which had been a part of Bihia in Shahabad (in Bihar ) was transferred to the revenue subdivision of Ghazipur, which shortly afterwards was separated from Varanasi and became an independent district comprising not only the district of Ghazipur but also the whole of Ballia . In 1832 a redistribution of territory was effected and parganas Sikandarpur and Bhadaon were assigned to Azamgarh . In 1837 pargana Kopachit was also added to Azamgarh . the tahsil of Ballia comprising the parganas of Ballia, Doaba and Kharid, formed a subdivision of the Ghazipur district. In may, 1857 the news of the out break of the freedom struggle at Meerut did not perturb the ghazipur authorities.

  38. On June 3, the struggle broke out at Azamgarh and on the same day Ballia rapidly fell in to a disorganized state and general anarchy prevailed there for as time. the landholders whose rights had passed in to the hands of auction purchasers, every where, every where attempted to regain their ancestral holdings. The same day some spays rioted at the time of the dispatch of the treasury to Varanasi and killed an Englishman. The freedom fighters broke open the jail at Sikandarpur (in tahsil Bansdih) and set the prisoners free. They also looted and destroyed the bungalows of the officials and the courts and government offices. The police were helpless and though martial law was proclaimed, it could not be enforced till the arrival of a hundred soldiers from Varanasi. Their presence restored some order but the roads were no longer safe and the turbulent Rajputs of Pargana Ballia could not be controlled. On July 18, the British regained Azamgarh but they son found their position untenable and were compelled to retire with the result that the entire district of Azamgarh was abandoned except for tahsil Nagra (now included in Ballia district). For several months Ballia remained comparatively quiet but the condition of affairs underwent a complete change in March, 1858. The bulk of the British army was then concentrated at Lucknow and all the eastern districts of the State were almost denuded of troops. The opportunity was at once taken advantage of by Kunwar Singh (the famous freedom fighter of Ballia), who crossed the Ganga and marched through Ballia into Azamgarh where he was joined by a large number of freedom fighters. On April 15,1858, he besieged the British troops in Aamgarh but, realizing that he had no hope against the British forces, he left Azamgarh. Though he retreated, he was not defeated his troops retired in good order to Natthupur near the wastern boundary of Ballia district. He was followed by (Brigadier) who reached Natthupur on April 16 and the next day came up with the retiring force at Naghai. At Naghai, Kunwar Singh displayed tactical ability, for while he kept Douglas at bay he secured two lines of retreat for his main column. Naghai seems to have been a place very near Nagra, as the pursuit was taken up again on the following day (April 18) as far as Nagra (in tahsil Bansdih). From Nagra, Kunwar Singh marched to Sikandarpur and from there pushed on to Maniar (in tahsil Bansdih) on April 20. Robert Davies, the officiating magistrate of Azamgarh, wrote to Gubbins, the commissioner of the 5th Division, Varansi, that at Maniar, Kunwar Singh “four himself amongst friends, and the wants of his troops were voluntarily supplied by the villagers who were almost universally in his favour. Through their collusion, our spies were seized and detained and our information delayed.” On the morning of April 21, Douglas, who was encamped at Bansdih, made a surprise attack on Kunwar Singh's troops at Mamiar. The latter dispersed in different direction but re-assembled by evening at Santiwar, as place surrounded by a very thick wood and proceeded during the night to the river at Sheopur Gha, about 16 km. below Ballia. In spite of sustaining personal physical injuries, Kunwar Singh, with a large body of sepoys, crossed the Ganga at Sheopur Ghat that night baffling Douglas, outwitting Cumberlege, the colonel, who with two regiments of Madras cavalry had been dispatched to intercept Kunwar Singh's movements and notwithstanding the various precautionary steps taken by the Company's officers. Thus this gallant fighter retreated through Ballia to Bihar. Referring to his retreat Hall, (a contemporary English writer) observers, “Even his opponents speak of his masterly retreat across the Ganges, when closely pursued by the force under Sir E. Lugard, with respect.”

  39. By April 22,1858, Kunwar Singh came back to Jagdishpur (in Bihar) with about 1,000 followers, strongly determined to continue fighting the British though he had lost one arm and was wounded in his thigh. His retreat from the Ballia region did not break the will of the freedom fighters, most of whom had their homes in Ballia. As Douglas was away from Ballia in pursuit, there were no troops available to maintain order, with the exception of the somewhat inactive column under Cumberlege, who was not able to hold Ballia. The result was that Ballia passed into the hands of the freedom fighters. In the middle of May, 1858, Probyn (who was in charge of Ballia) succeeded in persuading in persuading Cumberlege to attack the Kausiks of Baragaon without waiting for a siege train. When at length the force arrived, Baragaon was found empty and after destroying the more prominent freedom fighters, the British troops returned to Ghazipur. Matters continued in the same state till July, 1858, when British forces again marched out to Ballia. The freedom fighters had destroyed a bridge on the road but the British managed to reach Ballia which was occupied by occupied by Sikh troops under them. The remainder of the British troops marched to Bairia (a town in tahsil Ballia) where they were besieged for several days by a large number of freedom fighters. When the Baritish forces reached Bairia, the Indian sepoys moved towards Ballia with the intention of capturing the town but their attack was unsuccessful and they were defeated. From that tie Ballia gradually settled down though it continued to remain hostile to the British till the advent of winter, when Douglas finally defeated the freedom fighters. In the later half of the 19th century, men like Dadabhai Naoroji, S.N.Banerji, G.K.Tilak and Madan Mohan Malaviya made a deep impression not only on all classes of Indians but even on Englishmen and foreigners as visible embodiments of the intellectual and cultural glory of India. Ballia could not remain untouched by these national leaders. In 1908, the district came into prominence as a center of nationalist activities. In that year government prosecuted B.G.Tilak for his patriotic and nationalists writings which were pronounced to be seditious and he was sentenced to six years' transportation and a fine of Rs.1,000. The news led to the closing of shops and to strikes by students is Ballia. When it was rumored that Tilak was released by the government, the students of the government school, took out a large procession celebration the release. When the precisionists reached the kutchery, the police made a brutal lathi charge, maiming many students. About 25 were expelled from school and many willingly gave up their studies and continued their political activities with vigour. An Besant's Home Rule movements of 1916 was also supported by the people of the district . In 1917, when the government of Madras issued orders for the internment of Annie Besant (the organizer of the movement), a storm of indignation swept over Ballia. Protest meetings were held all over the district and many persons joined the movement and at least five persons were arrested in this connection. The infamous Rowlatt Act of 1919, which aimed at drastically curtailing the liberties of the people by giving government unlimited powers to arrest them without a warrant and to detain them without trial, gave vent to feelings of beep resentment and raised a storm of protest all over the district. Mahatma Gandhi's appeal for a complete nationwide hartal in protest against this enactment met with instant response from the people of Ballia who observed a national week from April 6 to April 13 by holding meeting at which resolutions were adopted condemning the Act. At many place business remained suspended for some days. This agitation led to the realization that people had to be properly organized and, as a result, a district Indian National Congress Committee was formed.

  40. In 1921, Mahatma Gandhi launched his famous non-co-operation movement and it received enthusiastic response from all sections of the people in the district where a special force of 2,6000 volunteers was also raised for implementing this programme. Ballia subscribed a sum of Rs.13,000 to the Tilak Memorial Swaraj Fund. Night patrolling by volunteers was introduced to win over the sympathy of the people to the movement, Meetings were organized in every corner of the district and large processions were taken out in Ballia, Sahatwar, Rasra, Dumria and Nagra Liquor shops were picketed and tar (palm) trees (from the juice of which arrack in made) were cut down by the score. British goods were boycotted and foreign goods burnt in public. Khadi and the Gandhi cap became the fashion of the day. Law courts and government offices were also boycotted and normal studies in educational institutions were seriously disrupted left their classes to take part in meetings and processional. Such was the enthusiasm of the people for the movement that many foreign cloth merchants in Ballia and a ganja seller in Rasra willingly burnt their stocks publicly. Alarmed at the mass enthusiasm for the movement, the government reported to ruthless measures to curb it. Meetings and processions were broken up by force and defenseless and unarmed demonstrators were subjected to brutal lathi charges and wholesale arrests not only of Congress volunteers but of even those remotely suspected of national sympathy, were made. Mahatma Gandhi suspended the movement in 1922 as the result of the Chauri Chaura (in district Gorakhpur) incident. But the movement roused the consciousness of the people against alien rule and gave them new confidence and courage to fight the battle for freedom. On April 4,1922, Janwaharlal Nahru visited Ballia and addressed a meeting of about 3,000 persons. On June 21 and 22, Motilal Nehru and Madan Mohan Malaviya arrived and addressed meetings at Rasra and Ballia. At both the places they were given rousing receptions. They appealed for the promotion of swadeshi particularly the revival of hand spinning and hand weaving and hand weaving, removal of untouchability among the Hindus, promotion of Hindu-Muslim unity and prohibition of the use of alcoholic drinks. Their appeals were crowned with signal success and also led to the establishment of the national school at Bansdih where the pattern of studies followed Mahatma Gandhi's curriculum for national schools. The use of khadi was popularized by distributing spinning wheels in the rural areas of the district. In 1923, Jawaharlal Nehru came to the district again and addressed a large gathering in Ballia. He condemned Mahatms Gandhi's arrest and imprisonment (he was tried at Ahamedabad on March 18,1922, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment) and the district on March 18,1923. That same year some volunteers of the district participated in the Nagpur Jhandha Satyagraha which was directed against the promulgation of Section 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure against a procession carrying the national flag which was taken out at Nagpur in May 1, the participants in which were arrested and prosecuted.

  41. In 1925 the national leaders, Purushottam Das Tandon and Jawaharlal Nehru, visited the district and attended the inauguration of the Gandhi Ashram at Milki. The year 1925 was marked by the visit of Mahatma Gandhi to Ballia. He given a rousing reception by all sections of the people. On October 16, he also addressed a largely attended meeting at the Mahant school grounds. He recalled the district's enthusiastic participation during the non-co-operation movement and applauded its people. In 1928, when the Simon Commission visited India, it was subjected to boycott all over the country. In Ballia all the schools run by the district board (Zila Parishad) were closed and a complete hartal was observed. Protest and demonstrations were also organized. Placards and banners with the words, “Simon, go back,” were displayed and black flags were waved. January 26, 1930, was declared to be Independence Day and thousand in Ballia, as every where else in India. repeated the solemn and inspiring pledge, “We believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people to have freedom … We believe, therefore, that Indian must sever the British connection and attain purna (complete) swaraj ”. A procession carrying the tricolour paraded the streets of Ballia. The civil disobedience movement was launched in 1930 and Ballia played an important role in the movement. Large numbers of volunteers were enlisted not only from the town of Ballia but also from the remotest villages to organize the movement of which the salt satyagraha was an integral part. On April 12,1930 the salt law was broken and salt law was broken and salt was manufactured publicly at Ballia, the salt so manufactured being auctioned and the highest bid of Rs.20 being made by a government pleader. This was followed by the manufacture of salt at Reoti, Rasra and Bansdih. In its endeavour to suppress the movement, the government adopted repressive measures, Numerous arrests were made, lathi charges were resorted to and indignities were heaped on the freedom fighters. The Indian National Congress was banned. its offices were sealed and the tricolour torn and dishonoured. But the people kept up their non-violent struggle and the picketing of liquor, foreign cloth shops and schools and government offices continued. O n July 1, 1930, a batch volunteers went the court at Ballia. The police was called in and 19 Augusts were made. In 1931, the civil disobedience movement was temporarily suspended in view of the sitting of the round table conference (in London) but on its failure a hartal was observed in Ballia. The government promulgated Section 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. What unnerved the government most was the fact that after their release the political prisoners courted arrest repeatedly and defied the law in Ballia, Rasra, Bansdih, Sikandarpur and Sahatwar. Nearly all the prominent local leaders were put behind the bars. The governor of U.P. was shown the tricolour on his arrival in Ballia and was greeted with shouts of " Governor, go back". The four leaders who shouted this slogan were taken into custody and dragged to the jail where they were beaten mercilessly. The police combed the district to hunt out political persons and arrested any it pleased on mere suspicion or whim or even to pay off old scores. But the movement continued till 1934. Under the Government of India Act of 1935, the Indian National Congress decided to contest the elections for the Provincial Assembly and both the seats allotted to the district were assembled, Rafi Ahmad Kidwai and Sampurnanand urged the support of the Congress.

  42. In the individual satyagraha movement of 1940-41, scores of persons in the district courted arrest. The people of Ballia successfully carried into effect the Quit India movement of August 9,1942. The news of the arrest of the Congress leaders at Bombay reached Ballia the same day. The next day all the schools in Ballia were closed and the students went round in batches shouting patriotic slogans. On August 11, the people and the students took out a procession which ended in a meeting at which the leader called upon the people to accept the challenge of the government and the leader was arrested. On August 12, a students' procession was taken out to demand the closure of the courts. This was stopped by 100 armed constables and in the ensuing lathi charge many were badly wounded. The same day, in a speech in he British Parliament, the Secretary of state for India alleged that the Congress programmes included action like a general strike in industry and trade, the paralysing of the administration and the courts, cutting of telegraph and telephone wires and boycotting army recruitment centres. This speech triggered off further anti-British action and on August 13, the Bilthara Road railway station was attacked and the building was burnt. The currency notes found in the safes were not looted but were burnt. The water pump and the water tank were also smashed. A goods train was looted and the engine was smashed and seed stores, police-stations and post-offices were attacked. On August 16, the Rasra treasury was attacked and two days later the police-station at Bairia was reattacked as the station officer had removed the tricolour which the freedom fighters planted there on August 15, after gaining control of the place. The infuriated mob, numbering about 25,000, raided the police-station and numerous attempts were made to rehoist the flag. Men and women of all ages as well as children took active part in the raid, as in other parts of the district, without fearing reprisal by bullets. The police responded with a volley of shots resulting in the death of at least 20 and injuring about a hundred. A young man of 20 reaching his goal to plant the tricolour, was hit by four bullets and died on the spot. Dharam Das Misra (a local leader) and a boy of 12 years also dropped dead instantaneously while trying to hoist the flag on the police-station. The police kept up the firing for about six hours from about 14 hours. Undeterred by the firing, the deaths and the injuries, people maintained pressure to gain control of the police-station as they were determined to capture the police officer and others responsible for the firing but at dead of night, when it was raining, the police staff slipped away, and the thana was captured the next morning.By this time the freedom fighters had gained control of many other places in the district including the tahsil headquarters of Bansdih, the police-station and the seed store. The indiscriminate firing at the Bairia police-station and at other places compelled the people to take up arms, ignoring altogether the spirit of non-violence which had been their guiding principle till then. The district administrators had become nervous as the district was fast going out of their control and as al their talks of arriving at a compromise with the leaders of the freedom fighters in jail had failed as the latter wanted that the officers of the district administration serve faithfully under local Panchayati government after handing over the charge of the district administration to them. To this the district magistrate is reported to have said that in that event they would be hanged and he would be sacked.

  43. On August 19, about 50,000 persons armed with guns, lathies, spears, etc., proceeded towards the jail to free their leaders and other participants. When the (Indian) district magistrate learnt that the people were approaching in thousands to free their comrades in order to attack the government offices and to loot the treasury, he went to the leaders in jail and met Chittu Pandey, a local leader, and others and offered to release them provided they pacified the crowd. But as the leaders did not agree. he suggested that they should at least take the responsibility of seeing that no harm reached the treasury, the prison and government property. As no guarantee was given to him, he had no option but to release the freedom fighters in the faint hope of saving the treasury and other government property. Before their release they assured him that efforts would be made to maintain peace as far as possible. This not only marked the first victory of the freedom struggle but was a symbol in this small and economically backward district of Ballia of the downfall of the British raj. After their release, the leaders addressed a mammoth meeting at the town hal when Chittu Pandey exhorted the people not to indulge in sabotage or similar activities. But there was a difference of opinion and many opposed this point of view as they had witnessed the brutal killing of their companions and their feelings had been roused vehemently, so sabotage activities continued. A police officer who had the students beaten was caught and belaboured. The residences of government officers and non-officials who had given support to the government were sacked. Shops selling foreign cloth and liquor were attacked. The district magistrate, who was by now certain that the treasury would be looted, directed a deputy collector to burn the currency notes after noting down their numbers. These instructions were carried out but lakhs of rupees were pocketed by the police in the process. On August 20, a police van went round the town firing at passers by indiscriminately contrary to the assurance given to the leaders. In the absence of any planned program, many administrative centres remained to be captured, but they had already ceased to function properly. The freedom fighters constituted separate panchayats for different localities for carrying on the civil administration and Congress volunteers were appointed for the defence of the city, By now the people had acquired complete control of the city so much so much so that they declared 'Independence' for Ballia on August 20, 1942, and a popular government was formed with Chittu Pandey as its first head. According to a government report, seven out of ten police-stations of the district were in the hands of the freedom fighters and Congress raj had been proclaimed.On August 22,1942, Chittu Pandey called a meeting to which he invited the district magistrate who did not appear but sent a notice to be read out at the meeting to the effect that anybody who spread terrorism in the district would be arrested. During the night of August 22-23, military forces entered Ballia and popular government was overthrown. Then the horrors of the British police and military were let loose upon the people of Ballia, signalized by and orgy of loot and plunder, rape and ravage, beating and shooting, firing and burning.

  44. All leaders of the revolution, young and old, were arrested, beaten and tortured. The houses of all those who had helped or were supposed to have helped the fighters, were burnt down. The leaders were made to climb trees and were bayoneted. People arbitrarily imposed and fantastically large amounts were collected. People arrested were first mercilessly beaten, then kept in the lockup and starved. Those prisoners who refused to answer questions were suspended by their legs. More painful and inhuman tortures were inflicted on 'dangerous' prisoners which have few parallels in modern history. The prisons were so crowded with political prisoners that there was not even any space for sitting nor were they provided with any bedding or given other facilities. Instead of the usual jail utensils they were given earthen bowls and once a day were given chapattis made from chaff which caused dysentery. Many contracted diseases by the time they were released but when the Congress was in power in Ballia, government officers were well treated.Between August 1942 and 1944, no one in Ballia dared to were the Gandhi cap as those found wearing it even as a matter of habit, were shot dead. So great was the terror that no lawyer dared to come forward to defend the arrested victims, many of whom were awarded 25 to 30 years' imprisonment. The few who did were arrested on some charge or other. In March, 1944, Feroze Gandhi with his lawyer companion of Allahabad came to Ballia to assess the situation. They proceeded from the railway station to the Chowk. As usual, they were wearing their Gandhi caps which had not been seen for some time and which infused a new wave of confidence, self respect and enthusiasm in the people. All along the way they were surrounded by a growing crowd which became a procession. Many other lawyers came from allahabad to render legal assistance to the freedom fighters of Ballia. This virtually ended the reign of terror let loose by the British administration since the arrival of the British army in Ballia on August 22/23, 1942.The sacrifices of the people earned for Ballia the reputation of 'Revolutionary Ballia' during the Quit India movement of 1942. The conquest of Ballia by the freedom fighters attracted the attention of the British Parliament also. After the suppression of the freedom struggle in Ballia, to allay the nervousness of his superiors, the British officer in charge is reported to have sent a telegram 'Ballia reconquered' to the governor of U.P. (Maurice Hallett). In 1944, the district was also visited by Purushotam Das Tandon and Sampurnanand, two national leaders but as no body was prepared to act as host, the former returned the same evening only after assessing the situation, the latter staying for a night only. His host was subjected to torture and his house looted by the police. In October, 1945, Jawaharlal Nehru visited Ballia again by when the situation had returned to normal and about 50,000 persons heard his address and were greatly relieved to find that their sacrifice had not been in vain and that they were now under the protection of their national leaders. The Quit India movement showed that there was universal discontent with British rule, an indication that the British could not hold India for any length of time. By 1945, when the Second World War ended, British public opinion had veered round to the granting of complete independence to India.At last on August 15,1947, the Country, and with it the district, was liberated from alien rule and declared to be independent. The Country became free but before the people could fully realise that liberation and victory had become a fact, They woke to find that it had been partitioned. About 333 displaced persons from Pakistan came to settle in the district and were rehabilitated.